Featured Artists

Look who we have managed to secure for your viewing and entertainment pleasure! Looking forward to welcoming you to RedFest 2017; #RedFestZA

Blood Orange
Blood OrangeFeaturing | Craig Morris
The story of Gecko, a boy who has an oblique, out-of-synch way of seeing the world, of his childhood among the green hills of Natal and of his jagged school days in the Cape, where the Simonsberg drinks the Blood Orange sun at dusk. James Dean and Wilbur Smith have two-bit parts in this drama that begins with man landing on the moon and ends with Mandela riding a mermaid to freedom. A Zany Catcher in the rye.
Helen of Troyeville
Helen of TroyevilleFeaturing | Gina Shmukler
Our very own Old Girl Lesedi Job directs the brilliant actress Gina Schmukler in a gritty script from award-winning playwright Mike van Graan, in this poetic reflection on the complexities of contemporary South Africa. In the twilight of her life, and with a strong passion to live out her privileged position to help build a new society, a grandmother finds herself in a life-threatening situation, forcing her to reflect on her life. This gripping piece offers theatre for the mind and the soul, while commenting on deeply important social issues. Sitting in the Director’s chair after many achievements in performances all over the world, the inimitable Ms. Job brings home the ethos and camaraderie of RedFest as no one else can and truly does RedFest proud as we glimpse her theatrical journey and copious talent. Directed by Lesedi, actress Gina Schmukler shines in this ExploSIV Productions piece. It is now an established piece of theatre in South Africa, as the combination of Van Graan’s scripting and Job’s directing make this a must-see show.
Hero?Featuring | Craig Morris
Evil is attacking the City of Gold and stalking its citizens indiscriminately. Will the Fris Four, led by Captain Bliksem, be able to save them? A heroic, physical hour of fun! Andrew Buckland directs Craig Morris.
Seussical JR
Seussical JRFeaturing | Germandt Geldenhuys, Carly Graeme, Didintle Khunou and Andrea Shine with Teekay Baloyi, Danelle Cronje, Devon Flemmer, Sebe Leletola and Emilie Owen and featuring Matthew Counihan as “The Cat in the Hat”
“After all those years being stuck on a page, Did you ever imagine you'd see me onstage?" So says the mischievous Cat in the Hat at the onset of this fantastical, magical, musical extravaganza featuring a star cast from stage and screen! All of our favorite Dr. Seuss characters come to life in this delightful Seussian gumbo of musical styles, ranging from Latin to pop, swing to gospel, and R&B to funk! So let your toes tap, your fingers snap, and your imagination run wild for "oh, the thinks you can think, when you think about Seuss” in &CO’s wildly theatrical production, debuting at RedFest 2017! Don’t miss this joyful and theatrical reimagining of the musical SEUSSICAL, imaginative and immersive ... out of a seemingly normal box! This perennial favourite is perfect for the whole family.
Parlour Songs
Parlour SongsFeaturing | Kate Normington
New York cabaret comes to the heart of Jozi with Parlour Songs! South African stage and screen legend Kate Normington has dazzled audiences in theatres worldwide, including London productions of ANNIE, INTO THE WOODS and SUNSET BOULEVARD, and we are thrilled to welcome her to Parlour Songs. Audiences may recognise her from her award-winning performances in SISTER ACT, MAMMA MIA!, HIGH SCHOOL MUSICAL and HAIRSPRAY, the hit SABC comedy “Those Who Can’t” or even as “Typhane K” in the hilarious hit web series, “Sandton Survival Guide”.
OnderwêreldFeaturing | Christopher van der Westhuizen, Ruan Wessels, Bertha Le Roux-Wahl, David James and Carla van der Merwe
Die verhaal speel af by 'n elite privaat seunskool waar Greg Owen hoofseun is en Ekhardt, 'n buitestander, in matriek by hulle aansluit. Reeds met die inisiasie van nuwelinge vorm 'n band tussen die twee seuns. Ekhardt erken dat hy 'n voortreflike rekenaar hacker is en lei Greg in die geheime van die onderwêreld in wat hom, onwillekeurig, in 'n gevaarlike avontuur intrek.
There’s a Zulu on my Stoep(id) Heart
There’s a Zulu on my Stoep(id) HeartFeaturing | Nyeleti Ndubane
A young Tsonga woman kisses more than a few Zulu frogs before she finds her Tsonga prince. And then her Stoep(id) heart gets in the way… There’s a Zulu on my Stoep(id) Heart is a quirky story about a young Tsonga woman looking for marriage in the city of gold. She puts herself out there in all her golden glory, expecting to attract an equally golden Tsonga man. Despite her efforts, she only seems to attract Zulu men, whose approach is…unexpected. One actor performs an array of eccentric but recognisable local characters, resulting in a fun and poignant comment on cultural differences and family expectations in the context of the colourful kaleidoscope of urban Johannesburg in 2017.
JitterbugsFeaturing | ...
RedFest 2017 brings you the wonder of musical sketch comedy where students write the scripts and professionals act it out! The brainchild of The Jittery Citizens, this most enjoyable entertainment takes kids on a journey of wonder as they hone their creative writing skills and have the joy and pleasure of watching their ideas come to life! Thoroughly entertaining for the whole family, the competent crew of child writers and professional improvisers & comedians will have everyone in stitches! A highly energising, bold and enabling initiative from the The Jittery Citizens team that thrills every contributor both on and off stage, it provides much enjoyment for everyone involved. This is an opportunity to catch the gems that so often fall from the mouths of babes, as well as viewing improv sketches at their best! Directorial oversight is provided by Claudine Ullman.
HootFeaturing | Matthew Ribnick
Geraldine Naidoo’s multi-award winning play, HOOT, is the hysterical and colourful journey of a rich white man who loses everything and ends up becoming a minibus taxi driver. Performed by Matthew Ribnick, the play has enjoyed a long and successful life since its premiere in 2005. Over the past 12 years, the play has constantly been adapted and updated in order to remain relevant and engaging in the rapidly changing world we are living in. The powerful story and important themes remain universal and timeless. The play is a cross-cultural comedy of epic proportions, focusing on a desperate man in an unfamiliar world. Through snappy dialogue, split-second character changes and strong physical acting as well as a number of other skills, Ribnick brings a slew of over twenty hilarious and familiar local characters to life. Don’t miss this South African classic!
Taking Flight
Taking FlightFeaturing | Ryan Dittmann, Tebogo Machaba, Katlego Letsholonyana, Jacques de Silva and Meg van Wyk
A somewhat grotesque physical piece, inspired by the life and writings of the famously idiosyncratic Roald Dahl, this show will ring bells for an entire generation as well as captivating an entirely new one too. Follow Dahl as a young boy and journey with him through Mrs Pratchett’s sweet shop, his early school years, and meet his favourite teacher. Plunge into scrumduddlyumtious worlds of dirty beasts, oompa loompas, filthsome creatures, crocky-wocks and vitches. Get ready to take a leap, a jumo, a skip and fly with us through Dahl’s magical worlds. Directed by Kirsten Harris, the cast comprising Ryan Dittmann, Tebogo Machaba, Katlego Letsholonyana, Jacques de Silva and Meg van Wyk are superb in this ZikkaZimba/Hijinks show.
Vuka Machel
Vuka MachelFeaturing | Xolile Gama and Mncedisi Shabangu
A hugely entertaining premise of Samora Machel awakening to find his wife married to Madiba and his country struggling along pervades this tale, told from the perspective of two chicken thieves from Kanyamazane during their everyday escapades. Staged by K.T.O. and directed by Mncedisi Shabangu, it stars Xolile Gama and Mncedisi Shabangu. A comedic and highly entertaining look at what might have been, this production is set to enthrall audiences with its brilliantly executed contemplation and homespun ponderings.
The Cloud Catcher
The Cloud CatcherFeaturing | Nieke Lombard
Now Emily Jade was no ordinary child. She was shy and timid but adventurous and wild. She was odd-looking, unpopular but also quite smart,  Despite failing Science, Geography, Maths, History & Art. You see Emily could not stay focussed – a major flaw – She never stopped daydreaming – not ever – at all.    Although Emily always had her head in a cloud, This would eventually make her community proud. You see Emily was a thinker, a tinker with a brain, Who would soon save the day and bring back the rain. 
MacbethFeaturing | Sean Redpath, Sarah Richard, Miles Petzer and Guy Trask
The Tragedy of Macbeth takes us into the mind of one of Shakespeare’s most conflicted characters; Macbeth, a valiant military leader whose dormant desire for power is awakened when a mysterious prophesy foresees his becoming king. Allured by the promise of greatness, and spurred on by his wife, Lady Macbeth, he takes it upon himself to ensure the prophesy is fulfilled. Desire for power soon gives way to the fear of losing it, and he finds himself compelled to course of action that ultimately leads to his own demise. Inspired by the tireless work of the Royal Shakespeare Company and its founders, Umoya Shakespeare Company is dedicated to staging dynamic productions of Shakespeare’s plays, founded on performance excellence. Umoya means ‘spirit’ or ‘breath of life’, and it is the mission of Umoya Shakespeare Company to once again breathe life into these theatrical masterpieces.
Space Rocks
Space RocksFeaturing | Stella Dlangalala, Lehlohonolo Dube, S'thembiso Khalishwayo, Thapelo Mohapi, Diana Penman and Lunga Mofokeng
Ten, nine, eight, seven six… When his sister starts the count-­‐down to blast-­‐off, JoJo is not ready to head into space in their home-­‐made space ship. But Jinks has been fighting with Mother again, and there’s no stopping her when she’s like this. As they steer their way past the mournful Moon, and quick-­‐talking Mercury, JoJo has to deal with some pretty scary things. Like Vortex and Void, who are chasing them through the solar system. Luckily he is an expert on planets, because Jinks keeps trying to do terribly unsafe things, like landing on Venus. By the time they get to strict Saturn, JoJo has had enough -­‐ every adventurer has a limit. Then Jinks gets them into a fix she can’t fix, and it is JoJo who will have to get them home.
Live in Concert!
Live in Concert!Featuring | Kate Borthwick
Kate accomplished her Bachelor of Music degree cum laude at the University of Pretoria. |n 2009 she was a semi-finalist in the Jazz/Popular music category of the SAMRO Overseas Scholarship Competition for keyboard players. From 2008 to 2013 she sang and played keyboards in Joseph Clark’s band, performing the music of Queen locally and abroad. The group toured to Holland in 2011, performing to an audience of 30,000 people at the Gelredome soccer stadium in Arnhem. In 2012, Kate released an independent album comprising original songs that she wrote, arranged, performed and co-produced with Jonathan Crossley. The album received rave reviews in Beeld (Kobus Buger 2012/05/30) and online blogs. Some theatre credits include the Fugard’s CABARET (musical director), LET’S BE FRANK with Frank Opperman (keyboardist and backing vocalist, Aardklop 2008), JERSEY BOYS (keyboardist, South Africa and Asia Tour 2012 to 2014) and THE ROCKY HORROR SHOW (keys 2 and assistant musical director, Cape Town and Joburg 2013 to 2015). Kate has taught classical and contemporary piano at St. John’s College (five years), St. Stithians and WITS. Kate Borthwick joins our RedFest 2017 weekend of shows including Kate Normington, Germandt Geldenhuys and Barely Legal Showtunes
Fu(G)Featuring | Brett Goldblatt, Lilitha Kakana, Andre-Joseph Mallet, Nomathemba (Noma) Maseko, Seagi Mogashoa, Siobhan Nayler, Uvishka Parbhoo, Palesa Ramaema, Dayna E Silva, Pallesa Mthombeni.
RedFest 2017 brings you this sterling production that tells a tale that needs to be heard. Kojo is only 14 but no one believes him. He's just one of the unaccompanied minors arriving in London, a refugee on the streets of the UK. Ara hails from Baghdad and still hears the bombs at night. Cheung can do superb back flips and is from a village in China that is more than a thousand years old. All orphans in London, they are the only family to each other that they have now. Together they tell Kojo's story; a story of lost childhood, tall trees and a murder in motion; a murder by a child that everyone claims is a man. Relevant, dramatic, heartbreaking and yet thoroughly entertaining, the voices of displaced children from war-torn areas all over the world come together in a wonderfully staged production not to be missed.
The Jittery Citizens
The Jittery CitizensFeaturing | James Cairns, Vanessa Frost, Pule Shkothane, Mpho Osei Tutu and Tony Bentel
The Jittery Citizens is South Africa's premiere improvisation troupe, a talented and fearless group of internationally trained comedic and musical improvisers, bringing laughter and joy to RedFest 2017. Founded by Claudine Ullman who was trained at Chicago's Second City and New York's Magnet Theatre, and Alex Radnitz, The Jittery Citizens are skilled in both long form and short form improvisation, performing monthly in the exciting and innovative Armando Night at the Market Theatre, which always features a celebrity guest performer. The Jittery Citizens feature a constantly growing cast of well known South African performers, including James Cairns (Dirt, Three Little Pigs), Vanessa Frost (Defending The Cavewoman), the stand-up comedian Pule Shkothane, Mpho Osei Tutu (The Miser) as well as piano accompaniment by renowned musical improviser, Tony Bentel. Directed by Claudine Ullman. For a rollicking bout of entertainment, look no further!
Khokhos Treasure
Khokhos TreasureFeaturing | A large and talented cast
This play opens when their beloved khokho passes away and the children are left to open a large suitcase she has bequeathed them. Joined by their friends, they all gather under Khokho’s favourite Baobab tree, and carefully open the suitcase in great anticipation. What will they find? Money? Treasure? They have no idea and are really surprised when they lift the lid! This charming South African production will enthrall and entertain young audiences and give over some valuable lessons about friendship and the rich diversity of South African culture. There is some humour and much singing and dancing to music from grandpa’s collection, including Johnny Clegg, Miriam Makeba and Mango Groove. A large and talented cast is directed by Francois Theron for the National Children’s Theatre to great effect, and this is a South African tale not to be missed!
Cairns against Humanity
Cairns against HumanityFeaturing | James Cairns
To see James Cairns ‘versus’ humanity is a hoot! In the early 1990s, the Market Theatre Laboratory held weekly theatre sports evenings where some of the finest actors honed their improvisation skills. Now Cairns, a regular participant and fringe veteran, has had the cajones to make improv a festival show and, for anyone with an even modest enjoyment of great theatre, this is a must-see. Cairns makes up the story line based on suggestions from the audience and what typically ensues is a scream for all concerned. A master in his craft, Cairns regales with a feast of laughter in this Contagious Theatre production.
EverymanFeaturing | Khyani Ngwabe, Dimpho More, Molebogeng Phiri, and Nomathamsanqa Mhlakaza
Karmic in its contemplation, the premise of Everyman is that God tallies one’s good and bad deeds upon death and holds one accountable according to what he finds. Fates can vary, but the prospect of judgement is intimidating to say the least. As with an accounting ledger, an allegorical tally takes place upon the death of Everyman, who represents all of mankind, as he faces his future in the afterlife. Contemplative, reaching and eminently entertaining, this ZikkaZimba production is directed by Mahlatsi Mokgonyana and stars Khyani Ngwabe, Dimpho More, Molebogeng Phiri, and Nomathamsanqa Mhlakaza.
PlastocracyFeaturing | Lerato Sefoloshe, Sanelisiwe Yekani, Lea Vivier, Mlindeli Zondi and Antonio Van Lendt
#ThereIsNoAway A forlorn creature gathers itself together, slowly rising out of the discarded detritus of humanity. Gaining consciousness and determined to live, it tumbles over the landscape, hurtling downriver and out into the ocean to meet a vast, swirling petrochemical ooze. In its mind a single thought forms: who am I? Every minute, one refuse truck load of plastic waste is dumped into the ocean. In a world where ‘eco-friendly’ is trendy, we still find ourselves struggling to take responsibility for our planet when it counts. The Well Worn Theatre Company presents a compelling glimpse into our behaviour, presenting Plastocracy - an exploration of a world of wanton waste and what it might breed. The play aims to inspire the future conscious consumers our Earth so desperately needs, by broadening young audiences’ understanding of the catastrophic impacts of plastic waste on eco-systems. Plastocracy is the latest physical theatre production from this award-winning eco-education theatre company. The production is made possible by a generous grant from the National Lotteries Commission and forms part of Well Worn’s three-year touring play programme. Directed by Kyla Davis with puppet design by Francois Knoetze and featuring Lerato Sefoloshe, Sanelisiwe Yekani, Lea Vivier, Mlindeli Zondi and Antonio Van Lendt, the play is 50 minutes long and suitable for secondary school learners. Plastocracy premiered at this year’s National Arts Festival Fringe and The National School of the Arts after which it toured schools in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, North West and Limpopo. "Plastocracy should run in every SA school!"- Sarah Roberson, The Critter, NAF 2017.
Parlour Songs - Barely Legal Showtunes
Parlour Songs - Barely Legal ShowtunesFeaturing | Didintle Khunou
New York cabaret comes to the heart of Jozi with Parlour Songs! We’ve hand-selected the best of the best from under 25 performers to bring you the absolute cream of the crop as our future stars take over Parlour Songs! This special one night only 90 minute evening features fourteen incredible students and recent grads from WITS, Oakfields, Redhill, King David, Stageworx and TUT! You saw them here first! Joining this stellar cast for the evening is our special guest star, Didintle Khunou, “Celie” in Bernard Jay and Joburg Theatre’s South African premiere of THE COLOR PURPLE! Seats are strictly limited and this special cabaret will close out the Festival. We expect ticket demand to be exceptionally high. This show is currently NOT scheduled to be repeated. (Our previous BARELY LEGAL SHOWTUNES in Cape Town sold out overnight.)
Dean Play
Dean PlayFeaturing | Emma Rogers - Dean, Kathleho Matumane - Sidney, Ntsimedi Gwangwa - Dahlia, Mikateko Phaleng - Mom, Rethabile Ramapulane - Mom, Deminkha Pillay - April
Dean is about a 16 year old transgender male (female to male) who is in the process of transitioning. He physically looks male however he is planning on going for surgery. The play revolves around how his 2 mothers, sister, girlfriend and best friend react to his transition and how those relationships change. The play is about 30 minutes.
Man Up
Man UpFeaturing | Mark Tatham
A story about life, masculinity and how it is being embodied in men today. 'Man Up' is brought to life by hilarious physical characters, anecdotal memories and tales of one man's bittersweet success as a South African street workout champion. What does it mean to be a 'man' in 2017? 
Parlour Songs
Parlour SongsFeaturing | Germandt Geldenhuys
New York cabaret comes to the heart of Jozi with Parlour Songs! One of the brightest up and coming stars from the hit series BINNELANDERS comes to Parlour Songs! He recently featured in SWEENEY TODD in his Fleur du Cap-nominated performance as rival barber, “Pirelli.” Germandt has been performing for as long as he can remember, starring in school plays and musicals. He competed the World Championships of Performing Arts in 2006, winning the coveted Grand Champion Award for Vocals. He completed a Licentiate in Musical Theatre and a Licentiate in Drama from the Trinity Guildhall College of London through Waterfront Theatre School. Shows include Richard Loring's KAAPSE STORIES FROM THE MOTHER CITY, THE JUNGLE BOOK, SISTER ACT and SNEEUWITJIE.
Broadway Boot Camp
Broadway Boot CampFeaturing | Andrea Shine and Drew Bakker
With our guest teachers Andrea Shine and Drew Bakker brought to you by &CO. Do you love to sing, act or dance? Learn a song and choreography to perform in front of friends and family, working with American director Drew Bakker (including &CO Seussical Jr.) and actor and theatremaker Andrea Shine (including Gertrude in Seussical Jr.) in a fun, safe space. And then perform it for your friends and family! It’s your chance to star at RedFest! Juniors are ages 6 to 12, seniors 13 to 21. Do one day or both! Each day is different!
TranslationFeaturing | Bailey Snyman
The fascinating tale of a white Afrikaans man who nonetheless speaks English, journeying back to his mother tongue. This is a semi-autobiographical physical theatre work that considers language and identity in the era of #afrikaansmustfall. Unafraid to go where needs must, the show is a fascinating contemplation of many nuances and realities that come together to move the principal character forward. The production makes use of dance, comedy and clowning techniques to explore the uncertainty of the man’s identity in an evolving South African landscape, translating his past into his present and struggling to find himself in his skin and whiteness. Staged by The Matchbox Collective and directed by Micia de Wet and Nicola Haskins, Bailey Snyman excels in the role.
Rat Race
Rat RaceFeaturing | Ameera Patel and Roberto Pombo
Rat Race is a pop-up storybook play for young kids about an unlikely friendship between a stressed-out city rat, Miles, and a kind, easy-going farm mouse Melissa. It’s a comic play with a gentle eco theme that uses live music, clowning, puppetry, illustrations and physical theatre to tell a colourful ‘tail’ about big changes in little lives. The story follows Miles the rat, a big cheese in a big city, whose hectic lifestyle starts to make him ill. Ordered by his mother to take a break in the countryside when his health starts failing, he sets off for some relaxation. Who unbeknownst awaits him but Melissa, a strong and capable field mouse who loves the peace and tranquility of her earthy farm life. Miles and Melissa get off to a bad start when their worlds collide and they discover that they have very different daily routines. Miles thinks Melissa is too bossy and Melissa thinks Miles is too loud. Miles and Melissa clash initially, but manage to find a way through their own distaste for each other and soon start to catch a glimpse of the other’s view on life. All things change, and rodents are no exception! Melissa helps Miles learn how to control his temper, relax and find peace in the little things like gardening and a good night’s sleep. Miles teaches Melissa how to really dance! Wiser and purer of purpose, Miles returns to the big city with a new set of tools with which to face life, thanks to Melissa.
Cradle under the shade
Cradle under the shadeFeaturing | Gauteng Opera Company
Based on a sub-Saharan myth about how the world was created, this beguiling tale is told by a father whilst sitting around a fire late one night. Staged by the Gauteng Opera Company with a superb cast capably directed by Tshepo Ratona, this is one production for everyone who wants to feel at home and soak up some wonderful theatre.
FireHouseFeaturing | Ryan Dittmann, Tebogo Machaba and Katlego Letsholonyana
This play opens on a group of three firemen on shift, at the FireHouse. The three amazingly transform the audience’s world with but a single prop - a ladder - as they detail imagined worlds with hilarity and tomfoolery. Three actors transform a small space and a ladder into a myriad of imagined worlds. Using physical theatre and clowning they tell the stories of fire fighters working in the city of Johannesburg. FireHouse is a devised offering, a social X-ray of the stories of three civil servants fighting fires against a backdrop of political instability and fires that cannot be contained. This ZikkaZimba/Hijinks production is directed by Kirsten Harris and definitely not to be missed. The cast of Ryan Dittmann, Tebogo Machaba and Katlego Letsholonyana entertain thoroughly throughout.
El Blanco – Tales of the Mariachi
El Blanco – Tales of the MariachiFeaturing | James Cairns
El Blanco is a master class in the art of vocal and physical storytelling. James Cairns (The Snow Goose, The Three Little Pigs, Dirt) plays El Blanco, a failed mariachi searching for redemption, in this gripping one man show written by Gwydion Beynon (The Epicene Butcher). For those ready to be captivated and swept down a master’s avenue, Cairns will regale with his exemplary skills on stage. Superbly directed with gripping nuances, Cairns never fails to take his performances to a higher level. “James Cairns …is truly a master of his craft. With his impeccable comedic timing and phenomenal physical theatre, chameleon-like skills, he can literally transform into any character he sets his sights on.” Barbara Loots - Theatre Scene Cape Town
A Short Cut – to a short life!
A Short Cut – to a short life!Featuring | Gamelihle Bovana, Primrose Cele, Fisiwe Kubeka, Siphosethu Sihlangu and Kgaogelo Monama
Highly relevant and unashamed in its look at the phenomenon of the blesser - older men who spoil young girls in order to ply them for sexual favours. In the streets of Soweto, middle aged men prowl , searching for susceptible 13 and 14 year-old girls. The blessers dazzle the girls with little gifts that increase in volume and convince them that they are blessed. And the girls get hooked, taken in by promises of the lifestyle they can lead. When you’re poor, and your mother can barely afford to keep you at school, that means a lot! Indeed the new life seems wonderful - forgettable sex in exchange for high heel shoes, hair extensions and leather handbags, designer jeans, visits to nightclubs, parties, and all soaked in liquor and abandonment - a glam life that most poor girls can only dream of. Becoming addicted to the tinselly trappings of life, two young girls enact a superb expose through music, comedy and absurdist dramatic tools. With an overarching message of warning, this is gritty theatre unafraid to look at the rough edges of society. Highly entertaining in spite of its morose realities, this is one any theatregoer can enjoy for its brilliant directing, talented cast and shameless theme. Staged by the National Children’s theatre and directed by Siphumeze Khundayi, the cast of Gamelihle Bovana, Primrose Cele, Fisiwe Kubeka, Siphosethu Sihlangu and Kgaogelo Monama give superb performances.